Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Faylasoofkii Gadoodsanaa Q.2aad Waxbarashada (WQ: Dr-Abdikarim D Hassan)

“Child-raising is the difficult art of ruling without a mandate and of doing everything by doing nothing” Rousseau.

Rousseau waxa uu qoray buugiisa “EMILE, or On Education”. Buuga oo ah dood cilmiyeed uu ku sharaxayo aragtidiisa ku saabsan guud ahaan Waxbarashada iyo ahamiyada ay u leedahay dhismaha qofka iyo qarannimada. Si loo fahmo aragtida Rousseau ee Waxbarashada aynu dib u milicsano fikrada udub dhexaadka u ah gebi ahaanba falsafada Rousseau. “Qofka bani’aadamka ah wuxuu ku dhashaa xaalad dabiici ah (natural goodness of man) isagoo damiirkiisu nadiif yahay; qofkaa wanaaga ku dhashay, bulshada ayaa fasahaadisa iyadoo adeegsanaysa waxbarashada”.
Waxa uu hordhaca kitaabka ku bilaabay

“God makes all things good; man meddles with them and they become evil.”

“Ilaahay wax kasta si qurux badan ayuu u sameeyay, laakin faro-gelinta dadka ayaa qaribta oo wax xun ka dhigta”.

Rousseau waxbarashada waxa uu u arkaayay inay sababi karto shar wayn; isla markaana waxbarasho fiican loo baahan yahay si loo dhiso bulsho iyo dowladnimo fiican. Wuxuu ku dooday in yoolka ugu wayn ee aqoontu uu yahay in ay garaadka qofka kobciso, xoraysana.

Waxbarashada qarnigaa 18aad ka jirtay yurup waxay ku salaysnayd laqimid iyo qaybib, qofba qafka uu ka xasuus badan yahay ayuu ka aqoonyahan sanaa, Rousseau wadciga noocaas ah waxa uu u arkayay arin aan dabiici ahayn, waanu kasoo horjeestay, wuxuu ku baaqay in caruurta loo daayo in ay si xor ah u fikiraan, in ay deegaankooda dhugtaan oo ay tijaabin iyo sahamin wax ku bartaan.

Waxbarashada ugu fiican, ugu cimriga dheeraata, qofkana noloshiisa wax ka bedeshaa waa aqoonta uu qofku dareemayaashiisa ku korodhsado, aqoonta deegaankiisa ka dhalatay ama xidhiidh toos ah la leh, aqoonta qofku uu qalbigiisa ku dareemo ee uu ka garaabo, sidaa darteed maaha qof yar in laga dhigo weel wax lagu shubo, ma’aha in xuriyada laga qaado oo la baro wax badan oo aan damiirkiisa wanaajinayn, noloshiisana waxba ku soo kordhinayn; sidaa ayuu Rousseau doodiisa u dhigay. Dooda Rousseau waxay marwalba cuskanaysaa in qofku dhasho isagoo ceeb-kasaliim ah, mas’uuliyada macalinka iyo bulshaduna ay tahayn in aan qofkaas yar la dhalan rogin oon lagu beerin xanuunada ay keentay xadaaradu.

Xiligaas uu noola oo ah xiligii maan-furanka yurub loo bixiyay, waxaa sidoo kale soo xoogaysanaayay nolosha magaala jooga. Rousseau waxa uu kasoo horjeestay goobaha caruurta lagu xannaaneeyo, iyo nuujisooyinka lacagta lasiiyo, isagoo u arkaayay in ay fadaraynayaan dabiicada toosan ee koritaanka ilmaha. Aragtidiisani waxay u muuqatay in uu yahay nin u dabaalanaya dhankii mowjadu kasoo socotay.

Laakiin waxa in la tilmaamo mudan in qarnigii labaatanaad la xaqiijiyay in afkaartii Rousseau ay ahaayeen kuwo sax ah. Dadka khibrada u leh nidaamka waxbarashada (educationists) waxay xusaan in Rousseau uu sii saadaaliyay oo albaabka u furay aragtida waxbarideed ee casriga ah ee loo yaqaan Skills-based learning,

Waa maxay kaalinta macalinku? Rousseau ayaa is waydiinaya. Hadana isagoo su’aashaa ka jawaabaya wuxuu yidhi: Macalinka shaqadiisu maaha in uu ilmaha u diyaariyo in uu xirfad gaar ah yeesho, ama koox gaar ah uu ka mid noqdo; macalinka shaqadiisu waa in uu ilmaha baro sidii uu garaadkiisa ugu adeegsan lahaa si xor ah. Sidaa darteed waa in macalinku dhiiri geliyo su’aasha” he must encourage questioning”, waa in uu baro fikrad curinta, dood wadaaga iyo sababaynta, waa in uu ilmaha ku abuuro faduulinimo aqooneed (educational curiousity) iyo kalsooni xad-dhaaf ah (Limitless self-confidence).

“Childhood has its own way of seeing, thinking, and feeling, and nothing is more foolish than to try to substitute ours for theirs”.

“Caruurnimadu waxay leedahay hab u gaar ah oo ay wax u aragto, u fikirto, una dareento, ma jirto nacasnimo kawayn in aynu isku dayno in aynu habkeena ugu doorino habkoodaas”;

Waa mid ka mid ah halqabsiyada doodiisa ugu culculus
Inkasta oo Rousseau uu culays badan saaray wax barrida qofka iyo toosnaantiisa, hadana waxa taas dhinac socota in uu u dooday waxbarasho guud (Public education) oo yaraysa kala duwanaanshaha bulshada, waxbarasho abuurta hayb-sooc bulsho oo isku mid ah (National identity), isagoo ku dooday in waxbarashada guud muhiim u tahay wadajirka bulshada iyo in ay awoodo in ay iska difaacdo cadowga dibada kaga iman kara.

Aragtida Rousseau ee ku saabsan wax barida hablaha ayaa iyaduna muran badan abuurtay. Ilaa wakhtigan aynu joogno colaad xun ayaa dhex taal Rousseau iyo ururada u ololeeya xero-kabixinta dumarka (Feminism).

Colaadaasi waxay ku sal leedahay iyadoo Rousseau uu aaminsanaa in raga iyo dumarku aanay isku mid ahayn, shaqada laga rabo in ay bulshada u qabtaana aanay isku mid noqon karin; sidaa darteed waa in laba hab oo kala duwan wax loo baro. Gabadha shaqadeedu waa in ay gurigeeda daryeesho, caruurta koriso, ninkeedana raali geliso, si’ay kaalinteedaa uga soo baxdo waa in waxbarasho u gaar ah lasiiyo.

“A women’s education must be planned in relation to man..and she will never be free to set out her own opinion above his”, wax barashada dumarka waa in loo qorsheeyo iyadoo loo eegayo xidhiidhka ay raga leeyihiin,, afkaarta gabadhuna waa in aanay marnaba ka hor iman kuwa ninka”.

Tani waa tiraab ka mid ah ra’yigiisa ku saabsan

madaxbanaanida aqooneed ee dumarka, waana aragtiyaha usoo jiiday dagaal xoog leh oo kaga yimid kooxaha u ololeeya dumarka. Rousseau aragtida uu dumarka ka qabay waxay ku sanbanaanayd dareenka guud ee xiligaas dhex yaalay bulshadii uu ku noolaa. Laakiin guud ahaan buugiisaa “Emile or On education” waxay sababtay in la amro soo xidhitaankiisa, isna uu guure kaga baxo Baariis isagoo baxsan ah.

Boqortooyadii xukunka haysatay iyo kaniisadu waxay u arkeen in Rousseau uu ka hor yimid sharciyadoodii oo uu iyaga si dadban u duray; marhadii uu ku andacooday in bulshadii jirtay ahayn mid caruur wax lagu dhex bari karo, sababta oo ah waxay noqotay mid suyucday oo mabaa’di dii, akhlaaqdii iyo dadnimadiiba ka dhimatay.

Ugu danbay, saamaynta ay yeelatay aragtida waxbarida ee Rousseau waxa ugu muhiimsan curashadii dugsiyada hoose oo taariikhdoodu kasoo bilaabantay qarnigii 18aad. Dalka Jarmal waxa ka samaysmay kooxo la baxay Philantropists, kooxahani waxa saameeyay aragtidii Rousseau, waxaanay bilabeen in ay hirgeliyaan fikradihiisii.

Waxa kale oo la yagleekey machadkii ugu horeeyay ee lagu tababaro macalimiinta laguna faafiyo aragtida Rousseau oo uu horseed u yahay Johann Bernard Basedow (1724–1790) oo ahaa educationist. Johann Friedrich Pestalozzi (1746–1827) oo isaguna ay raadaysay aragtida Rousseau ayaa dugsigii hoose ee ugu horeeyay oo ku howl-gala afkaartiisa ka furay Switzerland.

Xiligaas wixi ka danbeeyay yurub oo dhan ayay wada gaadhay dhismaha waxbarashada nidaamiga ahi, in kastoo aanay ku koobnayn afkaarta Rousseau oo keli ah, hadana isagu wuxuu ifiyay shucaacii ugu horeeyay.

#Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) wuxu ahaa faylasoof-ka iyo mufakirka ugu wayn ee casrigii maan-furanka (Enlightment age), waa ninka ilaa maanta dhamaan aqoonyahanka reer galbeed ay ku dhaataan, waa aabaha falsafada iyo aqoonta bulshada ee reer yurub; waxa uu yidhi isagoo la dhacsan buugaas uu qoray Rousseau ee “Emile or on Education” buugani waa “#the birth certificate of pedagog”, waa warqadii dhalashada ee xirfada wax barida iyo barbaarinta.

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