Sharciga iyo Sadex Shaqo oo Muhiim Ah (WQ: Garyaqaan Cabdiqani Mandela)

Waxan halkan ku xusayaa sadex shaqo oo  muhiimma oo uu sharcigu qabto. sadexdaa shaqo na waxey koobsanayaan hirgalinta samaha iyo sugnaashaha xuquuqaha shakhsiga, si loo joogteeyo nidaamka iyo kal-dambeynta bulsho ee ku dhisan nabad kuwada-noolaanshaha iyo dawladnimadda. iyada oo la xaqiijinayo rabitaanka dadka si loo dabbaqo ujeedooyinka sharciga.   Sadexdaa shaqo oo kala ah: b) xakameynta bulshadda (social control), t) Khillaafaadka (dispute settlement) iyo J) isbadalka bulshadda (social change).

  1. B) Xakameynta Bulshadda (Social Control): bulshooyinku waxey leeyihiin kala duwanaasho xaga qiyamka, caadooyinka, dhaqanka, diinta iyo dannaha ku dhisan. Siddaa darteed waa muhiim in la helo xal iyo xeer ay isku aqbali karaan, ku-wada-noolaan karaan, isla markaana isku heyn kara. Waxa jira hab toos ah iyo hab dadban oo bulshooyinka loo xakameeyo (informal and formal social controls) haddaba sharcigu waa habka tooska ah ee loo maro xakameynta bulshooyinka si loo maareeyo ummuurahooga dhaqan-dhaqaale, siyaasadeed iyo bulsho. Sida uu qabo caalimka weynaa ee qaanuunka Roscoe Pound oo ah aqoonyahan ku xeeldheer sharciga, ahaana hormuudkii kuliyada sharciga ee jaamacadda Harvard University (1916-1936) wuxuu yidhi ‘’ sharcigu waa habka ugu wanaagsan ee lagu xakameyn karo bulshooyinka si nidaamkooga siyaasadeed u noqdo mid ka madhan khilaafaad iyo isku-dhac bulsho.
  2. T) Khillaafaadka (dispute Settlement): Khillaafaadku siddeedaba kama maqnaan karo nolosha dadka. Haddaba si loo maareeyo waxa la abuuraa shuruuc lagu xaliyo, laggana hortago in la caadeysto wax walba oo keeni khillaafaad. Sharcigu waaka  si cad u qeybiya kheyraadka iyo fursadaha dhexyaala bulshadda si loo helo caddaalad la taaban karo iyada oo la suulinayo khilaafaadka, laggana gaashaamanayo iska hor imaad iyo khalkhal dhaca.

Sharciga yaalla maxkamaduhuna waa xeer aaney cidna sheegan karin in uu isaga u hiiliyey, sababtoo ah sharcigu ma aha shey lahaanshihiisa cidi sheegan karto ee  waa qoddobo qoran oo habka loo fulinayo, cida lagu fulinayo, sida loo fulinayo, goorta la fulinayo ay qeexan yihiin. Dhinaca kale sharcigu wuxuu tixgalinayaa habka kasta oo lagu soo afjari karo, isla markaana lagu dhameyn karo muranada iyo khilaafaadka bulshadda sidda nidaamka gaarka ah ee lagu xalilo khilaafaadka ee ADR (alternative dispute resolution).

  1. J) Isbadalka Bulshadda (social change): indheergaradka iyo cullimadda waaweyn ee qaanuunka intooda badani waxey isku raacsan yihiin in sharcigu door dahabiya ka ciyaaro isbadalada bulsho, marka aynu ka hadleyno dawladnimadda casriga ah. sharcigu wuxuu awood u leeyahey qorsheynta, fulinta, agaasinka iyo ujeedo kasta oo lagu hirgalinayo isbadal bulsho. Marka la rabo in wax laga qabto caaddooyinka iyo dhaqamada xunxun ee soo-jireenka waxa muhiim ah in la sameeyo shuruuc dadka ka reebasa dhaqamadaa taban, isla markaana dhigasa waajibaad iyo ciqaab lagu cidhibtiri karo. Innaga shareecadda ayaa innaga macnuucdey khamriga iyo sinadda sidaas darteed ayaanad u arkeyn cid u badheedhasa. Sabbabo sharci darteed ayaanu qofna u sameyn karin waxa uu doono, talaabo kasta oo lagu keeney, nidaam iyo kala-dambeyn, laguna illaaliyey xoollaha qofka, xurmadda, xoriyadda fikirka iyo xuquuqaha nololeed ee horseedey isbadalka dhinac kasta ah, waxa sal u ah sharci iyo xeer, taasina waa natiijadda lagu garan karo sida sharcigga loogu badali karo nolosha bulshooyinka.

Fiiro gaara:- fikirkeyga shakhsiga ah iyo fahamkeyga gaarka ah ayaan kusoo xushey sadexdan shaqo ee ma aha sadexda shaqo ee ugu muhiimsan. Siddaa darteed ma lihi waa aragti la isku wada raacsan yahey.

Abdikani Mandela

Good-governance campaigner, Lawyer and international law student.

Abdikanimandela@gmail.com

Borama-Somaliland

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