Sooyaalka aqoonta Caafimaadka iyo nolosha Sayniska Q.1aad (WQ: Sayid-Abdirahman Abdillahi)

Sooyaalka aqoonta Caafimaadka iyo nolosha Sayniska Q.1aad (WQ: Sayid-Abdirahman Abdillahi)

Waa qormooyinkii taxanaha ahaa ee cinwaankoodu ahaa: Sooyaalka aqoonta Caafimaadka iyo Nolosha Sayniska.

Qormadii hore waxa aynu hadal haynay wax- soo-saarkii garaadka ku dhisnaa ee qolyihii Hippocratiska la odhan jiray kusoo biiriyeen aqoonta Caafimaadka.

Innaga oo bartaas kasii amba qaadayna, Hippocratis iyo xaddaaradihii berisamaadkii soo jireenka ahaaba waxa ay rummeysnaayeen in bedqabka iyo feyo dhawrka tolmooni ku jiro cunto nafaqo leh oo la quuto iyo jidh-dhis taam ah oo la sameeyo. Taas oo ku tusinaysa sida ay waagaas ugu baraarug sanaayeen tayaynta caafimaadka.

Dhanka kale xaddaaradihii hore waxa ay baadhitaan ku sameeyeen arrimaha deegaanka, is-dhalan-rogga cimilada, iyo hawadu sida ay u saameeyaan amaba u sababi karaan xanuuno.

Arrinta kaalinta ugu weyn ay ka qaateen waxa weeye soo saaristii ahayd xeerkii loogu magac daray (Hippocratic Oath) oo loola jeedo xeerka hab dhaqanka tolmoon ee dhakhaatiirta [= Ethical code for doctors].

Xeerkani waxa uu ahaa sharci dabar adag u dhigay dhakhaatiirtii hunguriga iyo dhiig miiratada shacabka xilligaas kula qamaamay, qaar badan oo ka mid ahna ay kasoo horjeesteen. Mid ka mid ah xeerarkaas waxa ka mid ahaa:

[Do not be too unkind, but consider the wealth of your patients. At times, you will treat people for free, recalling to mind a previous benefaction for your present reputation. If there is a chance to treat a foreigner or a poor man, do so fully. Where there is love of man, there is also love of the art of medicine].

(Ujeedkeeduna iyo macnaheeduna yahay: Bukaanadiina u tudha, kolkasta oo aad bukaan si lacag la’aan ah u daweysid; sumcaddaada ayuun baa qaadmi. Mar kasta oo la tixgeliyo bini’aadanimada – waxa la qaddariyay xirfaddii Caafimaadka).

Xeerkan loogu magac daray Hippocratic Code, waxa uu noqday xeer wax badan kusoo kordhiyay Giriiggii qadiimka ahaa. Sababta oo ah dadka wax daweeya iyo qaabka wax loo daweeyo oo aan berigaas xaddidnayn. Sidoo kale xeerkani waxa uu ka kaalmeeyay in la kala saaro oo la kala sooco dadka dhakhaatiirta ah iyo kuwa kale ee iska sheegta. Illaa xilligan aynu joogno sharcigan waa mid lagu dhaqmo, jaamacaddahana lagu dhigto.

Sidoo kale, qolyahani waa kuwii dhidibada u taagay fikradda xirfadda caafimaadka iyo barashada Sayniska caafimaadka (the idea of medical profession and the scientific study of Medicine). Ka sakow, guulihii wax-ku-oolka ahaa ee xaddaaradihii hore ee soo jireenka ahaa kusoo kordhiyeen caafimaadka, haddana waxa jirtay surma-seegtooyin ay la kulmeen mararka qaarkood. Bilmatal, xanuunada badankooda daweyntooda kuma ay wada guulaysan jirin. Ma ay haysan – suuxdin, kaar-jebin, iyo weliba dawooyinka dheyitaanka iyo nadiifinta loo adeegsado. Dhanka kale, dadkii hore waxa ay ku wannaagsanaayeen daweynta jugta iyo nabarada waaweyn dhaawaca ku yimaadda [=Trauma] Sidoo kale jabniinka lafaha [=Fractures] iyo kala baxa is-goysyada [=Dislocations].

Ciidankii Rooman-ka (Roman Army) ee xilligaas dagaalada lagu riiqday ku jiray ayaa ahaa kuwii illaa laga soo gaadhayo qarnigii 19-aad, noqday qaar guulo la taaban karo ka gaadhay daweynta dhaawacyada, iyo goynta xubnaha qaarkood (Amputations).

Laakiin, haddaba dhibta ugu weyn ee haysatay waxa ay ahayd – wax fikrad buuxda ah kama ay haysan qaabka jidhka guduhu u shaqeeyo [=Internal functioning of the body]. Dhinaca kale, hagardaamadii ugu weynayd waxa ay soo wajahday kolkii ay isku dayeen in ay qalaan oo xubin – xubin u jaraan jidhka bini’aadamka si loo darso oo waxna looga barto (Dissection) sababta oo ah go’doonka ugu weyn oo kaga imanayay dhaqanka iyo caqiiddada diinta oo mamnuuc iyo lama taabtaan loo arkayay in xubno aadane lagu barbarto. (Social and religious taboo).

Mufakiriintii dhanka Caafimaadka ee aad looga danbeyn jiray labo kamid ah oo kala ahaa Herophilus oo isagu ahaa ninka wax badan kusoo kordhiyay barashada qaab -dhismeedka jidhka (Anatomy) iyo sidoo kale mufakirkii kale ee lagu magaacbi jiray Erasistratus oo isna cilmi badan oo ku saabsan qaabka jidhka bini’aadamku u shaqeeyo daaha ka fayday (Physiology).

Herophilus waxa uu ahaa ruuxii u horreeyay ee darsa maskaxda iyo qaab-dhismeedka dareen- wadayaasha. Kolkaasna ahaa shakhsigii ugu horreeyay ee kala saara halbowlayaasha dhiigga qaada iyo arroorayaasha (Arteries and Veins).

Dhanka kale, Dhkakhtarkii isaguna ugu caansanaa qarniyadii galbaday ee hore waxa la odhan jiray Galen, waxa uu ahaa ninkii ugu saameynta badnaa cilmiga barashada qaab -dhismeedka jidhka (Anatomy). Waxqabadyadii iyo aqoontii uu yagleelay waxay soo gaadhay hillaadii illaa 1550-kii.

Arrinta cajiibka iyo ashqaraarka leh haddaba waxa ay tahay Galen ma uusan helin fursad uu ku qalo oo uu ku darso jidhka bini’aamka ee meydka ah (Dissection of the cadaver) sababta oo ahna sebenkaas uu noolaa oo in meydka la fadhataysto oo la fara-fareeyo ay ka ahayd arrin aan loo bogin oo lama taabtaan ah. Haddana isaga oo aan fursaddaas helin ayuu isla jeerkaas cilmiga Anatomy-ga wax badan kusoo kordhiyay.

Waxa uu qali jiray oo darsi jiray xubnaha xayawaanada mayeedhaanka ah si uu u ogaado qaab-dhismeedkooda. Galen waxa uu ahaa ninkii beeniyay aragtidii ahayd in halbowlaha dhiigga tuura ay ku jirto hawo iyo naqas keliyaata. Aragtidaas waxa uu ku buriyay Erasistratus. Si uu u caddeeyo warkiisa waxa uu qalay doofaar (Pig) kaddibna tusay in halbowlaha dhiig qulqulayo. Sidoo kale xayawaanada uu qali jiray kaddibna baadhi jiray waxa kamid ahaa xayawaanka daanyeerka – weliba noociisa la yidhaahdo in uu aadanaha aad u shabbaho oo loo yaqaan (Barbary Apes).

Taasi waxa ay ku tusinaysaa in berisamaadkii hore aan wax faham buuxa ah laga haysan qaab dhismeedka dhiig wareegga (Blood circulation). Tusaale, Caalimkii Galen waxa uu rummeysnaa in dhiiggu aanu jidhka ku wareegin – hase ahaatee la ga soo saaro oo laga dhaliyo beerka, kaddibna loo gudbiyo qeybaha kale ee jidhka. Taas oo uu ugu maleeyay midabada guduudka iyo buluugga ah ee dhiigu wato. Sidoo kale wax fikrad ah laga ma haysan doorka hawada Oxygen-tu ku leedahay dhiigga.

Dharaarihii tagay, dhakhaatiirtii kal hore waxa ay baadhi jireen xayawaannada illaa uu soo baxay Andreas Vesalius oo ahaa dhakhtar u dhashay waddanka Biljamka, noqdayna qofkii u horreeyay si toos ah u jeex-jeexa meydka jidhka bini’aadamka. Waxaana lagu xasuustaa in uu yahay Aabbaha cilmiga ugubka ah ama casriga ee Anatomy-ga. (Founder of modern human Anatomy).

Intaas kaddib, haddaba horumarintii cilmiga caafimaadku iyo aragtiyihii is daba jooga ahaa ee khubarada cilmiga caafimaadku kusoo biirinayeen aqoonta ayaa haddana geesta kale waxa jirtay argtiyo iyo mabaadi’ kusoo kordhayay aqoonta Sayniska. Bilmatal, cilmiga Bayoolojiga (Biology) caalimkii weynaa iyo falylasuufkii reer Giriig Aristotle, ayaa ahaa ruuxii dhidibada u taagay aqoonta Bayoloojiga. Inta laga warqabo illaa hadda ma jiro ruux ka horreeyay Aristotle oo darsay culuumta Bayoloojiga. Dhaliisha ugu doorka roon ee dusha looga tuuro Aristotle iyo gebi ahaanba Giriiggii hore ayaa waxa ay tahay: in badanaa aanay sameyn tijaabooyin ku filan – bes keliyaata aqoontoodu ku kooban tahay aragtiyo bilaa tajribo ah.

Eeddaas loo soo jeediyay waxa bar-kuma-taal ka dhigi karta kolkii uu socdaal dheer ku maray dhulweynaha Giriigga. Waxa uu darsay in ka badan 500 oo noole oo kale geddisan kuwaas oo weliba uu googayn jiray kaddibna baadhi jiray una kuur gali jiray.

Aristotle Aabbihii culuumta falsafadda waxyaabaha uu daaha ka feyday waxa ugu muhiimsanaa barashada korniinka uur- jiifta. (Development of Embryo). Waxa uu si adag u taageeray aragtida tibbaaxaysa in dhirta iyo xayawaanka nooluhuba ka soo unkameen ukun (Egg or spore) kaddibna noqdeen noolayaal dhammaystiran, taas oo loo yaqaan (Epegenesis).

Waxa uu dood iyo muran geliyay aragtida taas lidkeeda ah ee la yidhaahdo (Pangenesis) taas oo ka dhigan in noolayaashu isu gudbin karaan dabeecaddaha iyo muuqa oogada guud jiilba jiilka ka danbeeya. (Characteristics acquired during life are passed on to the offspring). Bilmatal, haddii xayawaanka geriga loo yaqaan isku dayo in uu quuto dhirta dheer, qoortiisu way kala bixi kartaa si uu u gaadho dhirtan dhaadheer kolkaasna dhallaanka uu dhallaana waxa ay noqon kuwo qoor dheer. (If giraffes stretch their necks to feed, then baby giraffes are born with longer necks).

Guud ahaan aragtidani waa mid salka ku haysaa arrintii caalwaaga iyo waxba-kama-jiraanka noqotay ee loo yaqaanay taddawurka bini’aadamka (Evolution). Sidaas darteed, Aristotle gebi ahaanba wuu kasoo horjeeday mabda’an.

La soco qeybta 3-aad ………..

Dr Abdirahman Abdillahi Aden, waa dhakhtar ku sugan magaalada Addis Ababa ee caasimadda dalka Itoobiya, waa dhakhtar bartay cilmiga caafimaadka. Waa qoraa wax ka qora ummuuraha Caafimaadka, Arrimaha bulshada, Diinta iyo Falsafadda.

Waxaad kala soo xidhiidhi kartaan: Wehelalle3@gmail.com

Twitter: @AdenDheere04

Facebook Account: Sayid-Abdirahman Abdillahi

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